Table 1.

Diagnostic criteria of prerenal and intrinsic AKI in the absence of a histological diagnosis

Clinical CriteriaPrerenal AKIIntrinsic AKI
Category A
    response to volume repletionRapid decrease of creatine with convergence to baseline levelsNo reconstitution of renal function
Category B
    history compatibleDehydration, loss of fluid, e.g., by gastroenteritis, heart failure, liver failure, inadequate use of diuretics, etc.Prolonged shock, exposition to nephrotoxins, extrarenal suggestive symptoms like pulmorenal syndrome, etc.
    physical findings compatibleLow blood pressure, low jugular pulse, tachycardia, orthostatic changes, poor skin turgorAbsence of signs of dehydration, cardiac monitoring shows adequate volemia
    urine examinationsAbsence of proteinuria, hematuria, and leukocyturiaProteinuria and/or hematuria and/or leukocyturia
  • The criteria of category A are obligatory and criteria of category B are optional for the diagnosis of prerenal or intrarenal AKI. Diagnosis of prerenal AKI required two criteria of category B and the obligatory criterion of category A. Hepatorenal syndrome, cardiorenal syndrome, and bilateral renal artery stenosis were regarded as prerenal AKI independent of these criteria. AKI, acute kidney injury.