Table 4.

Crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) of clinical and subclinical measures of cardiovascular disease (CVD)

VariablesAny self-reported CVDCAC >100CAC >400LVHABI <0.9
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Unadjusted
    Hispanic versus NH Caucasian0.86 (0.69, 1.07)0.180.75 (0.58, 0.97)0.030.69 (0.51, 0.94)0.023.64 (2.86, 4.63)<0.011.19 (0.89, 1.60)0.23
    Hispanic versus NH African American0.63 (0.50, 0.78)<0.010.98 (0.74, 1.29)0.881.11 (0.80, 1.55)0.521.44 (1.13, 1.83)<0.010.68 (0.52, 0.90)<0.01
Adjusted for demographic characteristicsa
    Hispanic versus NH Caucasian1.10 (0.75, 1.62)0.630.89 (0.47, 1.69)0.731.12 (0.56, 2.24)0.742.16 (1.42, 3.27)<0.011.26 (0.79, 2.03)0.33
    Hispanic versus NH African American0.88 (0.61, 1.28)0.511.45 (0.77, 2.74)0.252.34 (1.17, 4.68)0.021.08 (0.71, 1.62)0.720.88 (0.56, 1.39)0.60
Adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristicsb
    Hispanic versus NH Caucasian1.03 (0.68, 1.55)0.900.63 (0.30, 1.33)0.230.86 (0.39, 1.93)0.721.97 (1.22, 3.17)<0.011.29 (0.78, 2.13)0.32
    Hispanic versus NH African American0.82 (0.55, 1.23)0.341.35 (0.64, 2.82)0.432.49 (1.11, 5.58)0.031.44 (0.90, 2.31)0.131.05 (0.65, 1.70)0.84
    Age1.06 (1.05, 1.07)<0.011.10 (1.08, 1.11)<0.011.09 (1.07, 1.11)<0.011.03 (1.02, 1.04)<0.011.05 (1.04, 1.07)<0.01
    Gender (female versus male)0.66 (0.54, 0.79)<0.010.32 (0.24, 0.42)<0.010.36 (0.26, 0.50)<0.010.86 (0.70, 1.06)0.151.03 (0.81, 1.29)0.83
Education
    <7th grade versus college graduate1.20 (0.75, 1.91)0.450.72 (0.37, 1.40)0.300.83 (0.39, 1.73)0.612.50 (1.37, 4.53)<0.011.12 (0.63, 1.99)0.70
    7th to 12th grade versus college graduate1.23 (0.94, 1.60)0.131.18 (0.75, 1.84)0.501.47 (0.90, 2.40)0.131.70 (1.24, 2.33)<0.011.49 (1.07, 2.08)0.02
    HS diploma versus college graduate1.29 (1.01, 1.64)0.041.37 (0.94, 1.98)0.101.58 (1.05, 2.38)0.031.44 (1.10, 1.88)<0.011.54 (1.13, 2.09)<0.01
    Some college versus college graduate1.38 (1.12, 1.71)<0.011.18 (0.86, 1.62)0.301.05 (0.73, 1.50)0.801.35 (1.07, 1.70)0.011.34 (1.00, 1.78)0.05
eGFR (10 ml/min/1.73 m2 increase)0.90 (0.84, 0.97)<0.010.89 (0.79, 1.00)0.050.95 (0.82, 1.09)0.450.86 (0.79, 0.93)0.020.78 (0.71, 0.86)<0.01
Proteinuria (natural log)1.08 (1.01, 1.15)0.021.03 (0.93, 1.13)0.581.06 (0.95, 1.18)0.281.17 (1.09, 1.26)<0.010.95 (0.88, 1.02)0.17
Diabetes (yes versus no)1.63 (1.37, 1.95)<0.012.67 (2.02, 3.51)<0.012.08 (1.52, 2.83)<0.011.03 (0.84, 1.25)0.811.76 (1.40, 2.21)<0.01
Hyperlipidemia (yes versus no)2.26 (1.76, 2.90)<0.011.69 (1.21, 2.37)<0.011.93 (1.25, 2.97)<0.011.09 (0.86, 1.39)0.482.04 (1.46, 2.84)<0.01
BMI1.01 (1.00, 1.02)0.291.01 (0.99, 1.03)0.471.00 (0.98, 1.02)0.951.15 (1.13, 1.17)<0.011.00 (0.99, 1.02)0.77
Systolic BP (10-mmHg increase)1.01 (0.97, 1.05)0.801.07 (1.00, 1.14)0.051.05 (0.97, 1.12)0.231.21 (1.15, 1.28)<0.011.06 (1.01, 1.12)0.02
Current smoker (yes versus no)1.33 (1.06, 1.69)0.021.56 (1.03, 2.35)0.031.43 (0.90, 2.28)0.131.43 (1.09, 1.89)0.012.19 (1.67, 2.88)<0.01
Family history of premature CHD1.80 (1.46, 2.20)<0.011.84 (1.33, 2.56)<0.011.91 (1.34, 2.73)<0.011.27 (0.99, 1.62)0.061.16 (0.90,1.51)0.25
Serum hemoglobin0.96 (0.91, 1.01)0.140.91 (0.83, 0.99)0.030.87 (0.79, 0.95)<0.010.87 (0.82, 0.93)<0.010.97 (0.91, 1.04)0.45
hs-CRP (1 SD)1.03 (0.96, 1.12)0.401.00 (0.85, 1.16)0.950.97 (0.81, 1.16)0.711.00 (0.91, 1.09)0.921.12 (1.03, 1.22)<0.01
Serum phosphate1.06 (0.93, 1.22)0.371.35 (1.09, 1.66)<0.011.41 (1.21, 1.78)<0.011.08 (0.91, 1.27)0.39
Corrected serum calcium1.03 (0.86, 1.22)0.791.04 (0.79, 1.38)0.760.95 (0.70, 1.31)0.770.93 (0.75, 1.15)0.51
Total iPTH1.00 (1.00, 1.00)0.431.00 (1.00, 1.00)0.63
  • CAC, coronary artery calcium; CVD, cardiovascular disease; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; ABI, ankle-brachial index; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; NH, non-Hispanic; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HS, high school; BP, blood pressure; Hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; SD, standard deviation; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone; BMI, body mass index.

  • a Adjusted for age, gender, education, and clinical site.

  • b Additionally adjusted for all variables listed. CVD, CAC, and ABI models were additionally adjusted for serum phosphate and calcium. Intact PTH (iPTH) was only analyzed in the CAC models.