Table 1.

Characteristics of 586 pediatric patients with CKD in the CKiD study

CharacteristicaCKiD (Overall)CKiD GFR Categories, ml/min per 1.73 m2Pb
≥50 (n = 211)≥40 to <50 (n = 131)≥30 to <40 (n = 137)<30 (n = 107)
Age, years11 [7, 14]11 [7, 15]11 [8, 14]11 [7, 14]12 [8, 14]0.50
Male62% (364)62% (131)60% (78)66% (90)61% (65)0.88
Race<0.01c
    Caucasian66% (384)55% (117)70% (92)74% (101)69% (74)
    black23% (137)33% (69)21% (27)15% (20)20% (21)
    multiracial or other11% (65)12% (25)9% (12)12% (16)11% (12)
Hispanic ethnicity15% (85)12% (24)12% (16)21% (28)16% (17)0.05
Height percentile24 [7, 54]36 [12, 64]22 [6, 47]25 [7, 52]11 [3, 41]<0.01
Weight percentile46 [18, 79]59 [30, 85]45 [17, 73]44 [14, 77]22 [6, 58]<0.01
BMI ≥90th percentile24% (134)29% (57)22% (28)24% (31)17% (18)0.03
BMI <15th percentile10% (55)25% (14)16% (9)25% (14)33% (18)<0.01
Height velocity, percentile/year0.1 [−4.5, 5.5]0.3 [−5.7, 6.0]0.0 [−4.4, 5.7]−0.1 [−5.7, 5.8]0.3 [−2.8, 4.1]0.51
Growth failure (height < 3rd percentile)16% (90)8% (17)16% (21)18% (23)28% (29)<0.01
Primary CKD diagnosis0.94
    glomerular22% (129)25% (52)15% (20)23% (32)23% (25)
    nonglomerular78% (457)75% (159)85% (111)77% (105)77% (82)
Medication use
    ACE inhibitor48% (283)33% (92)23% (65)23% (64)22% (62)0.02
    iron supplement29% (172)24% (42)19% (32)30% (52)27% (46)<0.01
    alkaline therapy29% (171)18% (31)18% (31)37% (63)27% (46)<0.01
    ESA14% (80)10% (8)13% (10)30% (24)48% (38)<0.01
    growth hormone12% (72)8% (6)19% (14)39% (28)33% (24)<0.01
    ARBs11% (64)33% (21)20% (13)23% (15)23% (15)0.15
    lipid-lowering3% (18)11% (2)2% (3)4% (5)7% (8)<0.01
  • Data presented as median [IQR] or % (n). CKD, chronic kidney disease; CKiD; Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study; BMI, body mass index; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ESA, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; IQR, interquartile range.

  • a Missing data: n = 8 missing Hispanic ethnicity; n = 16 missing height percentile; n = 28 missing BMI ≥90th percentile; n = 28 missing BMI <15th percentile; n = 31 missing height velocity; n = 16 missing height <3rd percentile.

  • b P values for trend determined using nonparametric Cuzick test for continuous variables and Cochran–Armitage test for dichotomous variables.

  • c P value based on Caucasian versus non-Caucasian comparison.