Table 1.

Characteristics of US adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, NHANES 1999–2008

AllIn Reference PopulationaP
Yes, 49.6 (1.2)%No, 50.4 (1.2)%
n557528812694
Serum creatinine, mg/dl0.71 (<0.01)0.70 (<0.01)0.72 (<0.01)<0.07
Serum cystatin C, mg/L (n = 405b)0.82 (<0.01)0.82 (0.01)0.82 (0.01)1.00
eGFRSchwartz, ml/min/1.73 m2147 (1)147 (1)147 (1)0.50
eGFRCKiD, ml/min/1.73 m2 (n = 405b)99 (1)98 (1)99 (2)0.70
Urinary ACR, mg/g6.8 [4.51 to 3.3]7.6 [4.61 to 4.4]6.3 [4.41 to 1.9]0.20
Age, years14.5 (<0.1)14.4 (0.1)14.6 (0.1)0.08
Height, m1.65 (<0.01)1.64 (<0.01)1.66 (<0.01)<0.01
Weight, kg62.8 (0.3)56.2 (0.3)69.3 (0.6)<0.01
Body mass index, kg/m222.9 (0.1)20.8 (0.1)25.0 (0.2)
Systolic BP mmHg109 (<1)106 (<1)112 (<1)
Diastolic BP mmHg61 (<1)60 (<1)61 (<1)
Female, %49.3 (1.0)51.0 (1.4)47.7 (1.5)0.10
Race/ethnicity, %0.05
    Caucasian62.0 (1.8)58.9 (2.0)65.1 (2.1)
    African American14.9 (1.1)15.4 (1.2)14.5 (1.2)
    Mexican/Hispanic18.2 (1.6)20.3 (1.7)16.2 (1.7)
    Other4.9 (0.7)5.4 (1.0)4.3 (0.7)
Obese,c %17.7 (0.8)0.035.1 (1.4)
Systolic BP ≥120 mmHg, %13.4 (0.7)0.026.4 (1.2)
Diastolic BP ≥80 mmHg, %2.8 (0.4)0.005.6 (0.7)
Hypertension, %1.1 (0.2)0.002.1 (0.4)
Diabetes, %0.5 (0.1)0.001.0 (0.2)
Prescription medication last 30 days, %28.7 (1.1)0.0056.9 (1.8)
Pregnant, %0.4 (<0.1)0.000.7 (0.1)
Currently menstruating, %2.9 (0.4)0.005.8 (0.8)
  • Data are presented as means (standard errors), column percentages (standard errors), or median [interquartile range] for urinary ACR. Data are missing as follows: urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, n = 71; weight, n = 14; blood pressure, n = 74.

  • ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; eGFRCKiD, estimated GFR calculated with the revised Schwartz formula; eGFRSchwartz, estimated GFR calculated with the original Schwartz formula; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

  • a The reference population had the following characteristics: non-obese, BP <120/80 mmHg, no self-reported hypertension or diabetes, not currently pregnant or currently menstruating, not using prescription medications in the preceding 30 days.

  • b Cystatin C was measured in NHANES 1999–2001.

  • c Obesity was defined as Z-score for weight-to-height ≥1.645 on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth reference tables in 2000.