Table 3.

Adjusted multivariable linear regressions to determine predictors of neurocognitive outcomes

CharacteristicWASI Point Estimates (95% CI)WIAT-II-A Point Estimates (Achievement, 95% CI)CPT-II Point Estimates (95% CI)BRIEF-P Point Estimates (95% CI)
Verbal IQPerformance IQFull-scale IQCommissionsOmissionsaVariabilityBehavior Regulation IndexaMetacognitive IndexGlobal Executive Composite
Female−3.5 (−6.91 to −0.06)b−4.0 (−7.45 to −0.51)b−4.00 (−7.32 to −0.69)b−2.1 (−6.11 to 1.82)1.9 (−0.74 to 4.48)1.0 (0.98 to 1.06)1.0 (−1.63 to 3.52)1.0 (0.92 to 1.00)−0.8 (−3.52 to 1.87)−2.5 (−5.12 to 0.22)
African American−5.9 (−10.68 to −1.06)b−8.8 (−13.69 to −3.95)b−8.1 (−12.77 to −3.45)c−6.1 (−11.71 to −0.41)b−5.7 (−9.62 to −1.73)c1.1 (1.04 to 1.18)c5.2 (1.28 to 9.11)c1.1 (0.99 to 1.14)2.1 (−1.82 to 5.96)2.1 (−1.71 to 5.94)
Maternal Education
    13 to 15 years7.2 (3.19 to 11.25)c4.2 (0.16 to 8.32)b6.7 (2.82 to 10.63)c5.6 (0.99 to 10.23)b−0.7 (−3.69 to 2.38)1.0 (0.99 to 1.09)0.7 (−2.27 to 3.74)1.0 (0.92 to 1.03)1.1 (−2.09 to 4.27)−0.6 (−3.75 to 2.55)
    >16 years14.6 (10.64 to 18.47)c10.2 (6.25 to 14.19)c13.7 (9.89 to 17.48)c14.5 (9.94 to 19.07)c−2.1 (−5.13 to 0.97)1.0 (0.94 to 1.03)−2.5 (−5.53 to 0.50)0.9 (0.87 to 0.97)c−3.00 (−6.12 to 0.13)−4.0 (−7.06 to −0.87)b
Age per 2 years−0.3 (−1.37 to 0.75)−0.8 (−1.83 to 0.33)−0.5 (−1.54 to 0.52)−0.7 (−1.89 to 0.59)−0.3 (−1.13 to 0.52)1.0 (0.96 to 0.99)c−1.6 (−2.45 to −0.83)c1.00 (0.99 to 1.02)0.9 (0.05 to 1.74)b0.7 (−0.12 to 1.55)
Low birth weight−6.2 (−10.36 to −2.01)c−4.3 (−8.50 to −0.05)b−5.9 (−9.96 to −1.88)c−6.7 (−11.57 to −1.78)c2.9 (−0.34 to 6.16)1.1 (1.03 to 1.14)c2.4 (−0.74 to 5.60)1.0 (0.96 to 1.08)3.9 (0.53 to 7.28)b3.9 (0.60 to 7.27)b
Glomerular diagnosis3.6 (−1.12 to 8.28)3.8 (−0.96 to 8.57)4.1 (−0.47 to 8.64)2.9 (−2.57 to 8.32)−0.6 (−4.15 to 2.97)1.1 (0.99 to 1.11)−0.1 (−3.62 to 3.49)1.0 (0.91 to 1.04)−3.1 (−6.76 to 0.59)−2.1 (−5.71 to 1.58)
iGFR per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m20.7 (−0.32 to 1.75)0.8 (−0.27 to 1.82)0.8 (−0.22 to 1.79)1.4 (0.02 to 2.68)b−0.1 (−0.84 to 0.71)1.0 (0.98 to 1.00)−0.5 (−1.27 to 0.26)1.0 (0.97 to 1.00)−0.7 (−1.54 to 0.11)−0.7 (−1.49 to 0.15)
% of life with CKD to per 10%0.2 (−0.37 to 0.74)−0.1 (−0.64 to 0.48)0.1 (−0.46 to 0.61)0.2 (−0.44 to 0.84)0.1 (−0.37 to 0.46)1.00 (0.99 to 1.01)0.2 (−0.22 to 0.61)1.00 (0.99 to 1.01)0.03 (−0.40 to 0.46)0.1 (−0.30 to 0.56)
Elevated proteinuria−7.2 (−11.99 to −2.39)c−3.9 (−8.71 to 1.01)−6.1 (−10.73 to −1.44)b−0.5 (−6.01 to 4.96)1.5 (−2.32 to 5.22)1.1 (1.00 to 1.13)b1.8 (−1.95 to 5.62)1.0 (0.91 to 1.04)−1.1 (−4.85 to 2.66)−1.5 (−5.27 to 2.18)
Hypertensive1.2 (−2.08 to 4.51)−0.1 (−3.40 to 3.28)0.5 (−2.65 to 3.74)1.4 (−2.40 to 5.27)−0.6 (−3.11 to 1.97)1.0 (0.92 to 0.99)b−2.7 (−5.20 to −0.18)b1.1 (1.01 to 1.11)b1.0 (−1.66 to 3.60)2.0 (−0.59 to 4.63)
Seizures−8.5 (−13.53 to −3.37)c−10.1 (−15.20 to −4.90)c−10.2 (−15.15 to −5.30)c−8.8 (−14.58 to −2.93)c0.7 (−3.25 to 4.60)1.0 (0.92 to 1.05)−0.6 (−4.54 to 3.25)1.1 (0.99 to 1.14)3.2 (−0.98 to 7.34)3.5 (−0.61 to 7.64)
  • Higher intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement scores reflect better performance, whereas higher Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) scores reflect poorer performance. CI, confidence interval; CKD, chronic kidney disease; iGFR, iohexol-based GFR; WASI, Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence; WIAT-II-A, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II-Abbreviated.

  • a The variables were log transformed for analyses, and the regression coefficients and confidence limits were exponentiated. These values correspond to the ratio of the means.

  • b P < 0.05.

  • c P < 0.01.