Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of adult patients with NDD-CKD, by tertiles of eGFR change

VariableDeclining eGFR (n = 5103)Stable eGFR (n = 5255)Increasing eGFR (n = 5107)P
Rate of eGFR change, ml/min per 1.73 m2/yr; median (IQR)−4.8 (−8.2 to −3.2)−0.6 (−1.4 to 0.0)3.5 (1.9 to 6.7)<0.01
Age, years; mean (SD)75.5 (10.8)74.4 (9.8)72.8 (10.9)<0.01
Men, n (%)2055 (40.3)1866 (35.5)1688 (33.0)<0.01
White, n (%)4809 (94.4)5036 (95.8)4852 (95.0)0.09
Smoking history, n (%)448 (11.8)376 (9.2)418 (10.7)<0.01
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)1939 (38.0)1627 (31.0)1414 (27.7)<0.01
Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, n (%)1327 (26.0)1260 (24.0)1066 (20.9)<0.01
Heart failure, n (%)838 (16.4)542 (10.3)582 (11.4)<0.01
Peripheral arterial disease, n (%)727 (14.2)628 (12.0)624 (12.2)0.07
Hypertension, n (%)3674 (72.0)3940 (75.0)3563 (69.8)<0.01
Hyperlipidemia, n (%)2080 (40.8)2598 (49.4)2268 (44.4)<0.01
Dementia, n (%)161 (3.2)86 (1.6)129 (2.5)<0.01
Chronic liver disease, n (%)41 (0.8)25 (0.5)37 (0.7)0.10
Alcohol abuse, n (%)8 (0.2)7 (0.1)10 (0.2)0.73
Charlson Comorbidity Index, n (%)<0.01
    01899 (37.2)2331 (44.4)2325 (45.5)
    11482 (29.0)1583 (30.0)1348 (26.4)
    2970 (19.0)868 (16.5)903 (17.7)
    3+752 (14.7)473 (9.0)531 (10.4)
ACEI and/or ARB, n (%)1578 (30.9)1466 (27.9)1636 (32.0)<0.01
Beta blocker, n (%)1677 (32.9)1627 (31.0)1739 (34.0)0.03
Coumadin, n (%)372 (7.3)242 (4.6)358 (7.0)<0.01
Aspirin, n (%)654 (12.8)547 (10.4)808 (15.8)<0.01
HMG co-A reductase inhibitors, n (%)1389 (27.2)1415 (26.9)1567 (30.7)<0.01
Loop diuretics, n (%)1074 (21.0)763 (14.5)953 (18.7)<0.01
Aldosterone antagonists, n (%)132 (2.6)117 (2.2)139 (2.7)0.25
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, n (%)559 (11.0)675 (12.8)824 (16.1)<0.01
Metformin, n (%)425 (8.3)279 (5.3)311 (6.1)<0.01
Insulin, n (%)642 (12.6)470 (8.9)504 (9.9)<0.01
Sulfonylureas, n (%)642 (12.6)470 (8.9)504 (9.9)<0.01
Systolic BP, mmHg; mean (SD)134.7 (21.0)133.9 (19.5)130.4 (19.7)<0.01
Diastolic BP, mmHg; mean (SD)71.4 (11.3)72.2 (10.7)71.3 (10.9)<0.01
BMI, kg/m2; mean (SD)30.6 (6.9)30.8 (6.6)31.0 (7.3)0.26
Creatinine, mg/dl; mean (SD)1.3 (0.3)1.3 (0.4)1.3 (0.4)<0.01
GFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2; mean (SD)49.0 (9.1)48.1 (9.4)47.7 (9.4)<0.01
Proteinuria,a n (%)526 (31.2)289 (19.6)342 (19.8)<0.01
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl; mean (SD)50.1 (14.1)51.6 (14.2)51.3 (14.9)<0.01
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl; mean (SD)100.0 (37.4)103.5 (35.8)102.0 (36.4)<0.01
Hemoglobin A1C,b % (SD)7.4 (1.5)7.1 (1.3)7.1 (1.3)<0.01
Albumin, g/dl; mean (SD)4.0 (0.4)4.1 (0.4)4.1 (0.4)<0.01
  • ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; IQR, interquartile range; NDD-CKD, non–dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease.

  • a Data reported as a percentage of those tested for proteinuria: 1686, 1472, and 1726 individuals in the declining, stable, and increasing eGFR groups, respectively, were tested for proteinuria.

  • b Data reported as a percentage of those having a hemoglobin A1C test: 2294, 1969, and 1821 individuals in the declining, stable, and increasing eGFR groups, respectively, underwent such testing.