Table 3.

Multivariate associations of renal function measures in US adolescents aged 12 to 17 yearsa

Renal Function Measures
CreatinineGFRSchwartzGFRCKiDCystatin CLog (ACR)b
N557555754054055504
Age, per 1.5 years0.07 (<0.01)−7.09 (0.42)−2.65 (0.83)−0.03 (0.01)−0.02 (0.02)
    P<0.0001<0.00010.0070.0050.2
Female gender (vs. male)−0.10 (0.01)−17.50 (1.00)−0.50 (1.28)−0.08 (0.01)0.41 (0.05)
    P<0.0001<0.00010.7<0.0001<0.0001
Race/ethnicity
    African American (vs. Caucasian)0.03 (0.01)−5.99 (1.07)1.99 (2.00)−0.06 (0.02)−0.07 (0.05)
        P<0.0001<0.00010.30.00080.2
Hispanic/Mexican (vs. Caucasian)−0.04 (0.01)7.50 (1.65)4.94 (1.87)−0.06 (0.01)0.11 (0.05)
    P<0.0001<0.00010.020.0070.03
Other race (vs. Caucasian)−0.02 (0.01)2.69 (3.24)−1.74 (2.11)−0.03 (0.01)−0.17 (0.09)
    P0.30.40.40.030.07
Body mass index, per 3.1 kg/m2<0.01 (<0.01)−0.41 (0.31)−0.49 (0.39)0.01 (<0.01)−0.13 (0.01)
    P0.010.20.20.001<0.0001
Systolic BP, per 6.9 mmHg<0.01 (<0.01)0.59 (0.30)−0.02 (0.70)0.01 (0.01)0.06 (0.02)
    P0.060.05<1.00.30.001
Diastolic BP, per 7.0 mmHg<0.01 (<0.01)−0.38 (0.35)0.09 (0.43)<0.01 (0.01)0.01 (0.01)
    P0.040.30.80.70.5
Model r20.400.200.120.260.07
  • ACR, albumin-creatinine ratio; BP, blood pressure; eGFRCKiD, estimated GFR calculated with the revised Schwartz formula; eGFRSchwartz, GFR rate calculated with the original Schwartz formula.

  • Units: serum creatinine, mg/dl; GFRSchwartz, ml/min/1.73 m2; GFRCKiD, ml/min/1.73 m2; cystatin C, ACR, mg/g.

  • a Separate linear regression models for serum creatinine, GFRSchwartz, GFRCKiD, cystatin C, and log-transformed ACR as dependent variables and age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index, systolic BP and diastolic BP jointly considered as candidate explanatory variables. ACR was log-transformed because of non-Gaussian distribution characteristics. Parameter estimates are presented as beta coefficients (standard error). Intervals for continuous variables represent half the interquartile range.

  • b The exponents of the parameter estimates are as follows: −0.02 to 0.98, 0.41 to 1.51, −0.07 to 0.93, 0.11 to 1.12, −0.17 to 0.84, −0.13 to 0.87, 0.06 to 1.06, 0.01 to 1.01.