Table 1.

Summary of baseline and clinical characteristics of the study patients

CharacteristicsAll Subjects (n = 76)Recovery (n = 38)Nonrecovery (n = 38)P
Age (years)58.4 (17.0)52.2 (15.7)64.7 (16.2)<0.01
Female gender (%)30 (39.5)15 (39.5)15 (39.5)1.00
White race (%)64 (84.2)30 (79.0)34 (89.5)0.21
Baseline serum creatinine (mg/dl)1.1 (0.4)1.1 (0.4)1.2 (0.5)0.45
Estimated GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)78.6 (38.1)84.2 (40.9)73.0 (34.7)0.16
BUN at initiation of RRT (mg/dl)55.6 (29.9)51.3 (28.8)59.9 (30.8)0.23
Cause of acute kidney injury
    ischemia (%)66 (86.8)29 (76.3)37 (97.4)<0.01
    nephrotoxins (%)16 (21.3)10 (26.3)6 (16.2)0.29
    sepsis (%)50 (65.8)23 (60.5)27 (71.1)0.33
    multifactorial causes (%)51 (68.0)25 (65.8)26 (70.3)0.68
Length of ICU stay before randomization (days)5.4 (4.1)4.2 (2.8)6.5 (4.9)0.03
Length of hospital stay before randomization (days)8.5 (7.1)6.7 (5.0)10.2 (8.5)0.08
Charlson comorbidity indexa4.1 (3.3)3.3 (3.8)4.9 (2.7)<0.01
Mechanical ventilation (%)69 (90.8)34 (89.5)35 (92.1)1.00
Severe sepsisb (%)47 (62.7)22 (57.9)25 (67.6)0.39
APACHE II scorec23.4 (7.2)21.8 (7.2)25.0 (6.8)0.06
Nonrenal SOFA organ-system scored
    respiratory2.1 (1.3)2.1 (1.5)2.1 (1.2)0.98
    coagulation1.5 (1.3)1.4 (1.3)1.5 (1.3)0.58
    liver0.9 (1.3)1.2 (1.5)0.6 (1.0)0.08
    cardiovascular2.2 (1.7)2.0 (1.7)2.5 (1.6)0.17
    central nervous system2.2 (1.4)2.3 (1.3)2.1 (1.5)0.45
    total8.9 (4.0)9.2 (4.6)8.5 (3.3)0.43
Cleveland Clinic ICU ARF scoree11.9 (3.0)11.6 (3.0)12.2 (3.0)0.49
Intensive strategyf (%)34 (44.7)18 (47.4)16 (42.1)0.64
  • Data presented as mean (SD) unless otherwise noted. BUN, blood urea nitrogen; RRT, renal replacement therapy; ICU, intensive care unit; APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; ARF, acute renal failure.

  • a According to the method of Charlson et al. (31).

  • b Defined as sepsis plus acute organ dysfunction according to 2001 international consensus criteria for sever sepsis (13).

  • c According to the method of Knaus et al. (32).

  • d Nonrenal SOFA score, excluding the renal part, assessed on the first day according to the method of Vincent et al. (33).

  • e According to the method of Thakar et al. (34).

  • f Intensive strategy, intermittent hemodialysis, and sustained low-efficiency dialysis were provided 6 times per week (every day except Sunday), and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration was prescribed to provide a flow rate of the total effluent (the sum of the dialysate and ultrafiltrate) of 35 ml/kg of body weight per hour on the basis of the weight before the onset of acute illness (1).