Table 1.

Brachial artery characteristics

VariableControls (1) n = 22ESRD-CVD (2) n = 18ESRD-CVD+ (3) n = 17P-ANOVA
Age (years)50.1 ± 15.648.2 ± 10.563.5 ± 10.6<0.01a
Gender (male/female)13/911/711/60.44
Body mass index (kg/m2)24.5 ± 2.924.6 ± 4.425.9 ± 3.60.22
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)126 ± 17.5136 ± 19.5155 ± 23.8<0.001a
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77 ± 11.175.5 ± 12.674 ± 9.20.78
Mean blood pressure (mmHg)93 ± 11.296 ± 14.2101 ± 11.40.21
Pulse pressure (mmHg)49 ± 1761 ± 12.380 ± 23<0.001a
BA intima-media thickness (μm)427 ± 60450 ± 55479 ± 50<0.05e
Baseline BA diameter (mm)4.10 ± 0.654.40 ± 0.704.90 ± 0.95<0.01d
Baseline BA Einc (kPa x 103)3.06 ± 1.153.95 ± 2.16.28 ± 3.15<0.001a
Baseline BA blood velocity (cm/s)4.15 ± 1.93.95 ± 1.852.35 ± 1.9<0.01a
Baseline BA blood flow (ml/s)35.0 ± 2336.0 ± 20.122.8 ± 17<0.05a
Baseline BA shear rate (s−1)49 ± 11.445.5 ± 21.135.4 ± 20.1<0.01a
Whole blood viscosity (cPoise)3.58 ± 0.362.70 ± 0.35b2.78 ± 0.34<0.001b;c
Baseline BA shear stress (dynes/cm2)17.6 ± 4.712.6 ± 5.88.3 ± 6.2<0.001a
ΔBA diameter (% from baseline at 44°C)7.5 ± 3.624.7 ± 2.72f1.5 ± 1.65<0.001a;f
Δ Shear stress (% from baseline at 44°C)234 ± 125289 ± 169395 ± 295<0.05
FMD (ΔBA diameter/Δshear stress)3.6 ± 1.71.85 ± 1.2b1.05 ± 0.85<0.001a;b
GTN-induced dilation (GTN %)20.7 ± 5.6519.0 ± 4.311.20 ± 4.6<0.001a
GTN/FMD (ratio)3.50 ± 2.95.7 ± 2.88.1 ± 4.1<0.05c
  • Values are means ± SDs. FMD, flow-mediated dilation; BA, brachial artery; GTN, glyceryl trinitrate; ESRD, end stage renal disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease.

  • a P < 0.01: 3 vs 1 or vs 2;

  • b 2 vs 1;

  • c 3 vs 1;

  • d P < 0.05: 3 vs 1 or vs 2,

  • e 3 vs 1,

  • f 1 vs 2.