Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study participants by CKD

Clinical CharacteristicNon-CKDCKDTotalP
n153 (36%)267 (64%)420 (100%)
Age (years)58.0 ± 13.267.0 ± 11.663.7 ± 13.0<0.0001
Gender (male)141 (92%)258 (96%)399 (95%)0.04
Race<0.0001
    white137 (89%)177 (66%)314 (74%)
    black17 (11%)91 (34%)108 (26%)
Weight (kg)95.3 ± 24.693.0 ± 21.493.8 ± 22.60.3
Height (in)69.8 ± 3.069.1 ± 3.069.3 ± 3.10.01
Body mass index (kg/m2)30.2 ± 7.130.1 ± 6.130.1 ± 6.50.8
History of smoking<0.0001
    never43 (28%)43 (16%)86 (20%)
    past61 (40%)157 (59%)218 (52%)
    current49 (32%)66 (25%)115 (27%)
Diabetes mellitus29 (19%)100 (37%)129 (31%)<0.0001
Prevalence of
    myocardial infarction23 (15%)57 (21%)80 (19%)0.1
    coronary artery bypass graft10 (6%)40 (15%)50 (12%)<0.01
    percutaneous coronary intervention11 (7%)35 (13%)46 (11%)0.06
    coronary artery disease29 (19%)79 (29%)108 (26%)0.02
Stroke7 (5%)26 (10%)33 (8%)0.06
    peripheral vascular disease6 (4%)49 (18%)55 (13%)<0.0001
    any atherosclerotic diseasea38 (25%)114 (43%)152 (36%)<0.0001
BP medication use102 (66%)250 (93%)352 (83%)<0.0001
BP medications (number)1.4 ± 1.42.8 ± 1.52.3 ± 1.6<0.0001
    thiazide diuretic use37 (24%)70 (26%)107 (25%)0.6
    loop diuretic use17 (11%)121 (45%)138 (33%)<0.0001
    dihydropyridine use16 (10%)96 (36%)112 (27%)<0.0001
    nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker use14 (9%)24 (9%)38 (9%)1
    β-blocker use39 (25%)125 (47%)164 (39%)<0.0001
    α-blocker use23 (15%)81 (30%)104 (25%)<0.0001
    centrally acting agent use5 (3%)27 (10%)32 (8%)<0.01
    vasodilator use1 (1%)12 (4%)13 (3%)0.03
    ACEI use55 (36%)140 (52%)195 (46%)<0.0001
    ARB use8 (5%)48 (18%)56 (13%)<0.0001
    statin use46 (30%)158 (59%)204 (48%)<0.0001
    ASA use52 (34%)144 (54%)196 (46%)<0.0001
    ACEI and/or ARB use62 (40%)176 (66%)238 (56%)<0.0001
Clinic systolic BP (mmHg)138.1 ± 19.1148.1 ± 22.2144.4 ± 21.6<0.0001
Clinic diastolic BP (mmHg)82.9 ± 11.481.9 ± 12.682.2 ± 12.20.4
Clinic heart rate (bpm)74.5 ± 12.270.2 ± 12.371.8 ± 12.5<0.001
Ambulatory systolic BP (mmHg)127.8 ± 12.6135.1 ± 17.0132.5 ± 15.9<0.0001
Ambulatory diastolic BP (mmHg)74.3 ± 8.373.8 ± 11.074.0 ± 10.10.7
Ambulatory heart rate (bpm)73.9 ± 11.369.9 ± 11.171.3 ± 11.3<0.01
Estimated GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)81.5 ± 15.036.1 ± 16.651.9 ± 27.0<0.0001
CKD stage
    12 (1%)
    29 (3%)
    3A71 (26%)
    3B67 (25%)
    4102 (38%)
    517 (6%)
Urine protein/creatinine ratio (g/g) (median, IQR)0.09 (0.06, 0.11)0.30 (0.08, 1.64)0.13 (0.08, 0.74)<0.0001
Albumin (g/dl)3.8 ± 0.43.8 ± 0.43.8 ± 0.40.6
Cholesterol (mg/dl)192.6 ± 39.4181.9 ± 36.8185.5 ± 38.0<0.01
  • ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; ASA, acetylsalicylic acid.

  • a Includes myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, peripheral vascular disease.