Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study participants by CKD and diabetes mellitus

Clinical CharacteristicNo CKDCKDTotalP–CKDP–DMP–CKD × DM
No DMDMNo DMDM
n126 (30%)29 (7%)168 (40%)100 (24%)423 (100%)
Age (years)54.8 ± 13.257.8 ± 11.762.8 ± 12.863.4 ± 10.460.2 ± 12.8<0.00010.20.4
Gender116 (92%)26 (90%)161 (96%)99 (99%)402 (95%)0.030.50.2
Race<0.00010.40.9
White112 (89%)26 (90%)108 (64%)69 (69%)315 (74%)
Black14 (11%)3 (10%)60 (36%)31 (31%)108 (26%)
Weight (kg)93.6 ± 23.6104.1 ± 28.290.4 ± 21.597.4 ± 20.693.9 ± 22.70.20.020.5
Height (in.)69.8 ± 3.070.0 ± 3.469.0 ± 3.269.2 ± 2.769.3 ± 3.10.020.80.9
BMI (kg/m2)29.7 ± 6.732.9 ± 8.629.2 ± 6.031.5 ± 5.930.1 ± 6.50.60.010.5
History of smoking<0.010.70.02
    never32 (25%)12 (41%)32 (19%)11 (11%)87 (21%)
    past47 (37%)14 (48%)94 (56%)63 (63%)218 (52%)
    current46 (37%)3 (10%)40 (24%)26 (26%)115 (27%)
Prevalence of
    MI16 (13%)7 (24%)28 (17%)29 (29%)80 (19%)0.3<0.010.9
    coronary artery bypass graft8 (6%)2 (7%)19 (11%)21 (21%)50 (12%)0.030.040.5
    percutaneous coronary intervention7 (6%)4 (14%)21 (13%)14 (14%)46 (11%)0.090.30.3
    coronary artery disease21 (17%)8 (28%)42 (25%)37 (37%)108 (26%)0.050.010.9
BP medication use77 (61%)25 (86%)151 (90%)99 (99%)352 (83%)<0.0001<0.0010.4
BP medications (number)1.2 ± 1.32.1 ± 1.42.4 ± 1.53.4 ± 1.32.3 ± 1.6<0.0001<0.010.9
    thiazide diuretic use26 (21%)11 (38%)44 (26%)26 (26%)107 (25%)0.80.30.1
    loop diuretic use13 (10%)4 (14%)51 (30%)70 (70%)138 (33%)<0.0001<0.00010.04
    dihydropyridine use13 (10%)3 (10%)60 (36%)36 (36%)112 (26%)<0.000111
    nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker use9 (7%)5 (17%)14 (8%)10 (10%)38 (9%)0.80.20.3
    β-blocker use32 (25%)7 (24%)72 (43%)53 (53%)164 (39%)<0.00010.20.4
    α-blocker use18 (14%)5 (17%)51 (30%)30 (30%)104 (25%)<0.0010.90.7
    centrally acting agent use4 (3%)1 (3%)12 (7%)15 (15%)32 (8%)0.030.050.5
    vasodilator use1 (1%)0 (0%)10 (6%)2 (2%)13 (3%)0.020.1
    ACE inhibitor use33 (26%)22 (76%)72 (43%)68 (68%)195 (46%)0.03<0.00010.04
    ARB use5 (4%)3 (10%)22 (13%)26 (26%)56 (13%)<0.01<0.010.8
    statin use37 (29%)9 (31%)84 (50%)74 (74%)204 (48%)<0.0001<0.0010.07
    ASA use38 (30%)14 (48%)81 (48%)63 (63%)196 (46%)<0.001<0.010.7
    ACE and/or ARB use38 (30%)24 (83%)90 (54%)86 (86%)238 (56%)<0.001<0.00010.2
Clinic systolic BP (mmHg)137.6 ± 18.5139.8 ± 22.0144.8 ± 20.6153.6 ± 23.7144.4 ± 21.7<0.010.60.2
Clinic diastolic BP (mmHg)83.3 ± 10.681.0 ± 14.283.7 ± 12.678.8 ± 12.182.2 ± 12.20.80.30.4
Clinic heart rate (bpm)73.8 ± 11.977.9 ± 12.670.0 ± 12.370.4 ± 12.571.8 ± 12.40.010.10.2
Ambulatory systolic BP (mmHg)127.8 ± 12.5127.9 ± 13.5131.8 ± 15.2140.4 ± 18.3132.5 ± 15.90.0510.05
Ambulatory diastolic BP (mmHg)74.9 ± 8.270.8 ± 8.275.2 ± 10.671.5 ± 11.174.0 ± 10.10.80.10.9
Ambulatory heart rate (bpm)74.3 ± 11.271.8 ± 12.069.4 ± 10.970.6 ± 11.471.3 ± 11.3<0.010.40.3
Estimated GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)81.2 ± 14.682.8 ± 16.939.3 ± 16.831.1 ± 14.952.1 ± 26.9<0.00010.60.01
CKD stage<0.001
    12 (1%)0 (0%)2 (1%)
    24 (2%)5 (5%)9 (3%)
    3A56 (33%)15 (15%)71 (26%)
    3B47 (28%)20 (20%)67 (25%)
    450 (30%)52 (52%)102 (38%)
    59 (5%)8 (8%)17 (6%)
Urine protein/creatinine ratio (g/g) (median, IQR)0.078 (0.062, 0.106)0.096 (0.068, 0.126)0.134 (0.068, 0.480)0.604 (0.174, 2.44)0.118 (0.068, 0.469)<0.0110.01
Albumin (g/dl)3.8 ± 0.43.7 ± 0.33.8 ± 0.43.7 ± 0.33.8 ± 0.40.90.50.5
Hemoglobin (g/dl)14.6 ± 1.514.1 ± 1.313.5 ± 1.712.4 ± 1.813.5 ± 1.8<0.00010.10.2
Cholesterol (mg/dl)196.6 ± 37.5177.0 ± 42.8181.0 ± 35.3183.2 ± 39.2185.4 ± 37.9<0.010.020.02
  • DM, diabetes mellitus; ASA, acetylsalicylic acid; IQR, interquartile range.