Table 2.

Factors independently associated with limited health literacy

VariableUnadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)a
African-American race2.50 (1.27 to 4.94)3.01 (1.40 to 6.49)
Educationb
    less than high school12.1 (4.43 to 32.9)12.1 (4.10 to 35.7)
    high school equivalent3.75 (1.60 to 8.79)3.70 (1.46 to 9.36)
Incomec
    less than $30,000/year2.56 (1.01 to 6.49)1.52 (0.51 to 4.57)
Veteran2.06 (1.04 to 4.09)3.68 (1.61 to 8.43)
  • OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • a Independent odds of limited health literacy.

  • b Referent category is more than a high school level of education.

  • c Referent category is income at least $30,000/year.