Table 1.

Comparison of demographic and clinical characteristics by REALM score

VariableOverall Population (n = 288)REALM Score ≤60 (n = 41)REALM Score >60 (n = 219)Pa
Demographic variables
    median age: years64.0 (56 to 73)61 (57 to 73)63 (55 to 73)0.76
    gender: male163 (57%)27 (66%)123 (56%)0.3
    race: African American114 (40%)24 (59%)79 (36%)<0.01
    ethnicity: Hispanic8 (3%)1 (2%)6 (3%)1.00
Education
    less than high school40 (14%)14 (34%)17 (8%)<0.01
    high school equivalent92 (32%)17 (42%)64 (29%)
    more than high school154 (54%)10 (24%)136 (63%)
Income
    less than $30,000/year144 (50%)22 (54%)105 (48%)<0.01
    at least $30,000/year91 (32%)6 (15%)80 (37%)
    unknown52 (18%)13 (32%)33 (15%)
Veteran86 (30%)18 (44%)60 (28%)0.04
Married126 (44%)14 (34%)101 (46%)0.17
Dialysis/clinical variables
    Dialysis vintage: years2.3 (1.0 to 4.4)2.4 (1.0 to 4.1)2.2 (0.8 to 4.7)0.82
    Dialysis adequacy: Kt/V1.5 (1.4 to 1.6)1.5 (1.4 to 1.7)1.5 (1.4 to 1.6)0.94
Dialysis access
    Catheter59 (20%)3 (7%)51 (23%)0.02
    AV fistula or graft228 (79%)38 (93%)167 (77%)
CCI score
    1 to 264 (23%)6 (15%)57 (27%)0.02
    3 to 4109 (39%)13 (32%)83 (39%)
    >5110 (39%)22 (54%)75 (35%)
Laboratory values
    hemoglobin (g/dl)11.6 (10.9 to 12.2)11.9 (11.2 to 12.3)11.6 (10.9 to 12.2)0.18
    albumin (g/dl)3.8 (3.6 to 4.1)3.7 (3.5 to 4.1)3.8 (3.6 to 4.1)0.65
    calcium (mg/dl)8.9 (8.5 to 9.3)8.8 (8.5 to 9.1)8.9 (8.5 to 9.3)0.28
    phosphorous (mg/dl)5.0 (4.4 to 5.9)5.1 (4.1 to 6.9)5.0 (4.3 to 5.9)0.40
    iPTH (pg/ml)253 (175 to 397)266 (189 to 383)244 (165 to 386)0.55
Health-related variables
Symptom burdenb12.0 (7.0 to 17.0)12.5 (8.0 to 17.0)12.0 (7.0 to 17.0)0.86
Quality of lifec7.0 (5.0 to 8.0)7.0 (5.0 to 8.5)7.0 (5.0 to 8.0)0.93
    mental health50.4 (40.2 to 58.2)48.0 (36.7 to 61.5)50.1 (41.9 to 57.5)0.96
    physical health35.3 (27.0 to 44.2)32.8 (26.9 to 38.6)36.6 (27.1 to 44.9)0.22
    depressiond72 (25%)14 (34%)50 (23%)0.17
  • Category percentages may not equal 100% because of rounding. REALM, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine; AV, arteriovenous; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone.

  • a Comparison of patients with REALM ≤60 and >60.

  • b Number of symptoms reported on the Dialysis Symptom Index.

  • c Scores on Short Form 12.

  • d Proportion of patients with Patient Health Questionnaire 9 score of ≥10.