Table 1.

Baseline characteristics according to tertiles of physical activity

Tertiles of Physical ActivityaP
Inactive (n = 180)Moderate (n = 180)Active (n = 180)
General characteristics
    age (years)56.1 ± 11.051.6 ± 11.846.0 ± 11.5<0.001
    smoking, n (%)48 (26)33 (18)38 (21)0.2
    MS, n (%)135 (75)118 (70)111 (62)0.007
Cardiovascular disease
    myocardial infarction, n (%)21 (12)13 (7)9 (5)0.06
    transient ischemic attack/cerebrovascular accident, n (%)17 (10)9 (5)6 (3)0.05
Body composition
    body mass index (kg/m2)26.3 ± 425.8 ± 426.0 ± 40.7
    waist circumference in women (cm)96.6 ± 1493.2 ± 1492.4 ± 140.1
    waist circumference in men (cm)100.4 ± 1298.2 ± 12100.3 ± 120.4
    urinary creatinine excretion (mmol/24 h)10.7 [10.3 to 1.2]11.4 [10.9 to 11.9]12.5 [11.9 to 13.1]<0.001
Blood pressure
    systolic BP (mmHg)150 ± 22157 ± 22151 ± 230.003
    diastolic BP (mmHg)89 ± 1092 ± 1090 ± 100.04
    anti-hypertensive medication, n (%)164 (91)149 (83)158 (88)0.08
    use of ACE inhibitor, n (%)65 (36)50 (28)70 (39)0.09
    use of β-blocker, n (%)119 (66)108 (60)108 (60)0.5
Lipids and inflammation
    total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.65 ± 1.15.59 ± 1.15.61 ± 1.10.89
    HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.06 ± 0.341.12 ± 0.321.12 ± 0.340.13
    LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)3.6 ± 1.03.5 ± 1.03.6 ± 1.00.7
    triglycerides (mmol/L)2.0 [1.9 to 2.1]2.0 [1.8 to 2.1]1.8 [1.6 to 1.9]0.05
    hsCRP (mg/L)2.5 [2.2 to 2.8]1.9 [1.7 to 2.1]1.8 [1.6 to 2.0]0.05
Glucose homeostasis
    glucose (mmol/L)5.0 ± 1.44.8 ± 1.44.8 ± 1.40.4
    insulin (μmol/L)12.7 [11.7 to 13.8]11.2 [10.3 to 12.1]10.2 [9.4 to 11.1]0.001
    diabetes mellitus, n (%)36 (20)31 (17)27 (15)0.4
Renal function
    serum creatinine (μmol/L)141.6 [135 to 149]137.1 [131 to 144]136.5 [130 to 143]0.6
    creatinine clearance (ml/min)53.1 [50 to 56]57.8 [55 to 61]63.4 [60 to 67]<0.001
    urinary protein excretion (g/24 h)0.36 [0.3 to 0.4]0.35 [0.3 to 0.4]0.32 [0.3 to 0.4]0.8
    proteinuria ≥ 0.5 g/24 h, n (%)50 (28)52 (29)50 (28)0.9
  • Data are represented as mean ± SD or median [95% confidence interval]. Differences were tested by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and with χ2 for categorical variables. ACE inhibitor, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor.

  • a Tertiles of PA are stratified for gender and values are adjusted for age.