Table 1.

Association of higher serum phosphorus with cardiovascular events

StudySerum Phosphorus (mg/dl)Higher Serum Phosphorus Is Associated With:
The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (20)3.5CVD events and mortality
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (21)>4.0High ankle brachial index among individuals without clinically recognized CVD
Framingham Offspring Study (FOS) (19)3.5 to 6.2Increased CVD risk in individuals free of CKD and CVD in the community
Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (18)>4.0CV events, which are unlikely to be a result of differences with dietary intake or traditional CV risk factors, and when GFR was <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2
Each 1 mg/dl higher serum phosphorus levels was associated with a 31% increase of a first major CV event
Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) study (22)≥3.5An increased risk of new heart failure, myocardial infarction, and the composite of coronary death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, but not the risk of stroke
Each 1 mg/dl higher serum phosphorus levels was associated with a 27% increase in all-cause mortality