Table 3.

Adverse events associated with opioid and benzodiazepine use

Risk of OutcomeStudy
With OpioidsWith Benzodiazepines
Poor sleep quality1.55 (P < 0.0001)a1.59 (P < 0.0001)aElder (2008)
1.22 (95% CI: 0.88 to 1.69)a1.67 (95% CI: 1.15 to 2.44)aUnruh (2006)
Sexual dysfunction (pleasure)1.26 (P = 0.0078)aBailie (2007)
Sexual dysfunction (arousal)1.24 (P = 0.0134)aBailie (2007)
Hip fracture1.0 (0.5 to 2.0)cWinkelmayer (2007)
1.55 (P < 0.05)1.19 (P = 0.03)Jadoul (2006)
Any fracture1.67 (0.01<P ≤ 0.05)1.31 (P = 0.03)Jadoul (2006)
Falls3.7 (P < 0.001)a,bDesmet (2005)
Hospitalization1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)Fukuhara (2006)
Mortality1.27 (1.01 to 1.59, P < 0.04)Fukuhara (2006)
1.15 (1.02 to 1.31)bWinkelmayer (2007)
  • a Odds ratios.

  • b Unadjusted odds ratio.

  • c Hazard ratios (all others are relative risk values).