Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of study populations

StudyPeriodCountryPopulationDialysis UnitsNDialysis Duration (years)Mean Age (years)Male (%)ComorbiditiesBenzodiazepine UseOpioid UseUpper 95% CI
Black (%)HTCVDPVDDBN%Lower 95% CIUpper 95% CIN%Lower 95% CI
Opioids
    Elder (2008)1996–2001Intl.DOPPS I prev.30863213.1559 ± 14.5581572.514.019.630.0178228.227.129.3
    Bailey (2006)2000Intl.DOPPS I prev.30884554.9 ± 5.460 ± 14.7573873.115.421.332.98039.58.910.1
    Bailey (2004)1997USDOPPS I prev.14229983.4 ± 3.860.6 ± 15.5533884.118.326.246.253818.016.719.4
2000USDOPPS I prev.14224763.4 ± 3.860.6 ± 15.5533884.118.326.246.236814.913.516.3
    Desmet (2005)2001BelgiumCross-section73082.367 ± 13.95612.027.33712.08.816.1
    Davison (2003)2001–2002Canada41033.75 ± 3.260 ± 15.9581.555.610.210.737.13735.927.345.5
    Carreon (2008)2006USCross-section3754.4 ± 5.859 ± 146715.015.053.01621.313.631.9
Both
    Sklar (1996)1995USCross-section1852.3860.5 ± 16.559636.42225.917.836.11518.011.027.1
    Unruh (2006)b1995–1998USCHOICE incident819090.2557.8 ± 14.8532712113.311.315.716117.715.420.3
    DMMS (1998)a1996–1997USUSRDS incident103539170.1659 ± 165328>29>433107.97.18.81854.74.15.4
    Jadoul (2006)2002–2004Intl.DOPPS II prev.32012782217117.016.317.610788.48.08.9
Benzodiazepines
    Winkelmayer (2007)c1996–1997USUSRDS incident103536300.1658.5 ± 15.6542971.010.017.348.640811.210.312.3
    Manley (2004)2003USDCI cross-section200104743.73 ± 4.060.2 ± 15.65245>26.6>40.127652625.627.3
    Manley (2000)1999USCross-section22382.83 ± 2.859.5 ± 165321.028.03213.49.718.4
    Fukuhara (2006)2002–2004Intl.DOPPS II prev.>300512286917.016.018.0
2002–2004JapanDOPPS II prev.59158430819.417.621.4
    Bailey (2007)1999Intl.DOPPS I prev.30749245.27 ± 5.658.9 ± 14.5581772.213.819.531.074115.014.116.1
2002–2004Intl.DOPPS II prev.32077605.19 ± 5.661.7 ± 14.458977.016.324.932.5153620.219.321.1
  • HT, hypertension; CVD, cerebrovascular disease; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; DB, diabetes; Intl., international; prev., prevalent.

  • a 1919 peritoneal dialysis patients.

  • b 228 peritoneal dialysis patients.

  • c 1558 peritoneal dialysis patients.