Table 1.

Quality of included studies

Number of Studies (Total = 15)
    study sample represents the community of dialysis patients well13 (87%)
    study collects data prospectively13 (87%)
    comparison cohorts, if present, are drawn from the same source3 (20%)a
    study reports clear inclusion and exclusion criteria14 (93%)
    study measures actual use of opioids and benzodiazepines (versus prescription)1 (7%)
    study includes prevalent and incident patients6 (40%)
    all patients in the study are accounted for, and attrition was <20%4 (27%)
    study reports baseline characteristics (e.g., age, gender, comorbidities)14 (93%)
    study reports reasons for prescription of opioids and benzodiazepines1 (7%)
    study reports effectiveness of opioids and benzodiazepines2 (7%)
    adverse events associated with opioid/benzodiazepine use reported7 (47%)
  • a Comparison cohort not applicable in the other 12 studies.