Table 2.

Association of eGFR and vascular risk factors with cognitive impairment (Modified Mini-Mental State Exam >1 SD below mean)

CharacteristicOdds Ratio and 95% Confidence Interval
UnadjustedAdjusted for Demographics and Vascular Risk FactorsAdjusted for eGFR, Demographics, and StrokeAdjusted for eGFR, Demographics, and Traditional Vascular Risk FactorsFully Adjusted Model
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
    ≥600.61 (0.39, 0.97)0.77 (0.46, 1.28)0.78 (0.47, 1.30)0.68 (0.38, 1.24)
    45 to 591.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
    30 to 441.59 (1.24, 2.04)1.16 (0.87, 1.55)1.15 (0.86, 1.53)1.12 (0.82, 1.54)
    <302.29 (1.74, 3.01)1.47 (1.05, 2.05)1.46 (1.04, 2.04)1.28 (0.88, 1.86)
Age (per 10 years)1.37 (1.24, 1.52)1.37 (1.19, 1.59)1.41 (1.24, 1.60)1.41 (1.24, 1.60)1.31 (1.14, 1.50)
Male (versus female)0.99 (0.81, 1.20)1.48 (1.12, 1.97)1.29 (1.02, 1.64)1.38 (1.08, 1.77)1.48 (1.13, 1.95)
Non-white (versus white)4.21 (3.32, 5.33)3.89 (2.76, 5.47)4.27 (3.12, 5.82)4.19 (3.06, 5.74)4.04 (2.88, 5.68)
Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic)4.41 (3.16, 6.14)4.38 (2.65, 7.26)5.05 (3.21, 7.94)4.63 (2.92, 7.34)4.76 (2.90, 7.82)
Education
    less than high school3.40 (2.62, 4.41)2.37 (1.72, 3.25)2.12 (1.59, 2.82)2.19 (1.65, 2.93)2.29 (1.67, 3.12)
    high school graduate1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
    some college0.37 (0.27, 0.51)0.39 (0.27, 0.56)0.38 (0.27, 0.53)0.38 (0.27, 0.53)0.39 (0.27, 0.56)
    college graduate0.13 (0.09, 0.20)0.19 (0.12, 0.30)0.18 (0.12, 0.29)0.18 (0.11, 0.27)0.20 (0.12, 0.31)
Stroke2.29 (1.75, 2.99)1.91 (1.35, 2.70)1.64 (1.20, 2.24)1.62 (1.18, 2.22)1.97 (1.40, 2.78)
Diabetes1.83 (1.50, 2.24)1.01 (0.77, 1.34)1.09 (0.86, 1.39)
Hypertension3.62 (2.33, 5.61)1.07 (0.64, 1.80)1.16 (0.71, 1.91)
Elevated cholesterol1.33 (1.01, 1.75)1.15 (0.80, 1.65)1.09 (0.79, 1.52)
Smoking (ever versus never)1.07 (0.88, 1.31)0.68 (0.52, 0.89)0.65 (0.51, 0.84)
Coronary heart disease1.46 (1.17, 1.82)1.03 (0.76, 1.39)1.09 (0.83, 1.44)
Peripheral arterial disease2.00 (1.45, 2.76)1.06 (0.69, 1.64)1.04 (0.70, 1.54)
Systolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg increase)1.23 (1.18, 1.28)
Diastolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg increase)1.00 (0.92, 1.08)
Total cholesterol (per 10 mg/dl increase)0.99 (0.97, 1.01)
Hemoglobin (per g/dl decrease)1.32 (1.23, 1.39)1.08 (0.99, 1.17)1.09 (1.01, 1.18)
Log C-reactive protein1.18 (1.09, 1.27)1.05 (0.95, 1.16)
Serum albumin (per g/dl decrease)1.79 (1.47, 2.22)1.13 (0.81, 1.56)
Total homocysteine (per μmol/L increase)1.04 (1.03, 1.06)1.00 (0.99, 1.02)
Albuminuria
    <30 mg/day1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
    30 to 299 mg/day1.67 (1.29, 2.17)1.25 (0.90, 1.74)
    300 to 999 mg/day2.01 (1.49, 2.72)1.22 (0.82, 1.79)
    ≥1000 mg/day2.19 (1.63, 2.93)1.16 (0.76, 1.78)
  • Note that adjusted models include CRIC clinical site in addition to the variables shown.