Table 1.

Baseline patient characteristics, renal-related factors, biochemical data, and vascular assessment in all patients and in groups depending on CKD stage and dialysis modality

ParameterAll Patients (n = 249)DialysisCKDControls (n = 14)P
HD (n = 120)PD (n = 25)Stage 5 (n = 25)Stage 4 (n = 49)Stage 3 (n = 16)
Age (years; mean ± SD)65 ± 1462 ± 1561 ± 1460 ± 1468 ± 1275 ± 576 ± 5<0.001
Male:female163:8683:3716:1017:932:178:89:5NS
eGFR (ml/min; mean ± SD)NANA12 ± 219 ± 447 ± 1185 ± 10<0.001
Dialysis adequacy (Kt/V;a mean ± SD)1.2 ± 0.32.5 ± 0.5NANANANA
Dialysis vintage (months; median [IQR])30 (15 to 60)34 (15 to 60)27 (13 to 52)NANANANANS
Diabetes mellitus (n [%])69 (28%)39 (33%)8 (31%)7 (27%)15 (31%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0.02
Previous CV comorbiditiesb (n [%])80 (32%)39 (33%)11 (42%)8 (31%)17 (35%)1 (6%)3 (21%)NS
Smoker (n [%])48 (19%)12 (10%)4 (15%)7 (27%)21 (44%)3 (19%)1 (7%)0.001
EthnicityNS
    Caucasian234 (94%)110 (92%)25 (100%)21 (84%)48 (98%)16 (100%)14 (100%)
    Afro-Caribbean5 (2%)4 (3%)0 (0%)1 (4%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
    Asian10 (4%)6 (5%)0 (0%)3 (12%)1 (2%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
Etiologies (n = 235)NANS
    diabetic nephropathy55 (23%)30 (25%)8 (32%)5 (20%)12 (25%)0 (0%)
    glomerular disease43 (18%)25 (21%)4 (16%)5 (20%)8 (16%)1 (6%)
    APKD14 (6%)8 (7%)1 (4%)2 (8%)3 (6%)0 (0%)
    urological21 (9%)12 (10%)4 (16%)2 (8%)3 (6%)0 (0%)
    renovascular18 (8%)8 (7%)2 (8%)1 (4%)5 (10%)2 (13%)
    other30 (13%)15 (12%)4 (16%)3 (12%)6 (12%)2 (13%)
    unknown54 (23%)22 (18%)2 (8%)7 (28%)12 (25%)11 (68%)
Albumin (g/L)35 ± 535 ± 427 ± 435 ± 136 ± 339 ± 340 ± 3<0.001c
Phosphate (mmol/L)1.52 ± 0.401.65 ± 0.461.57 ± 0.241.62 ± 0.291.33 ± 0.231.19 ± 0.171.14 ± 0.15<0.001d
Calcium (mmol/L)2.42 ± 0.142.44 ± 0.132.51 ± 0.112.36 ± 0.142.33 ± 0.102.41 ± 0.082.43 ± 0.16<0.001e
PWV (m/s; mean ± SD)10.8 ± 3.6f10.5 ± 3.29.2 ± 2.99.1 ± 3.18.7 ± 2.6
SFA CaSc (median [IQR])142 (245 to 622)g29 (68 to 264)12 (46 to 198)g0 (7 to 176)0 (9 to 154)
  • eGFR, estimated GFR; APKD, adult polycystic kidney disease; SFA CaSc, superficial femoral artery calcification score. Results analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis test where appropriate, with Tukey post-test for normally distributed data and χ2 test for nonparametric data.

  • a Kt/V in HD is per single session and in PD is weekly.

  • b Defined as any previous description of ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral vascular disease recorded in the patient's medical notes.

  • c Albumin: comparison of HD with controls and CKD stage 3, P < 0.001; comparison of PD with all other groups, P < 0.001; comparison of CKD stage 5 with controls and CKD stage 3, P = 0.003.

  • d Phosphate: comparison of HD with controls, CKD stages 3 and 4, P < 0.001, comparison of PD with controls, P = 0.007, with CKD stage 3, P = 0.016, comparison of CKD stage 5 with controls, P = 0.002, with CKD stage 4, P = 0.021, with CKD stage 3, P = 0.004.

  • e Corrected calcium: comparison of HD with CKD stage 4, P < 0.001, with CKD stage 5, P < 0.023; comparison of PD with CKD stage 4 and 5, P < 0.001.

  • f Sixty-eight of 120 HD patients underwent PWV measurement.

  • g Sixty-eight of 120 HD patients and 56 of 74 CKD stages 4 and 5 patients had SFA calcification scoring performed.