Table 2.

Relative 1-year mortality rate between users and nonusers of calcium-containing phosphate binders

Hazard Ratioa95% CIP
Univariate0.620.52 to 0.73<0.001
Adjusted for demographic variables (age, gender, race, ethnicity)0.680.57 to 0.80<0.001
Additionally adjusted for marital status, living situation, educational level, comorbidities,b and baseline dialysis modality0.750.63 to 0.890.001
Additionally adjusted for blood pressure and laboratory measurementsb0.810.68 to 0.960.01
Additionally adjusted for use of other medicationsb0.810.68 to 0.960.02
Propensity score–matched cohort (n = 1600)0.890.72 to 1.100.28
  • a Nonusers constituted the reference group.

  • b Comorbidities include coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, cerebrovascular disease, history of cardiac arrest, hypertension, diabetes, HIV positivity, malignancy, and peripheral artery vascular disease. Laboratory measurements include serum phosphate, calcium, parathyroid hormone, albumin, total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. Other medications include statins, angiotensin-conversion enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, and beta blockers.