Table 1.

Characteristics of users and nonusers of calcium-containing phosphate binders

Full CohortPropensity Score–Matched Cohort
Users (n = 2794)Nonusers (n = 809)PUsers (n = 800)Nonusers (n = 800)P
Age58.0 (±15.7)61.1 (±15.2)<0.00161.2 (±15.2)61.0 (±15.2)0.84
Women46.149.30.1150.449.3
Race
    white66.465.464.165.5
    black27.530.231.030.0
    Asian3.82.43.02.4
    Native American1.01.20.81.3
    other1.40.90.201.10.90.72
Hispanic ethnicity11.610.80.5210.910.80.94
Education (n = 3,224)
    <high school32.737.336.037.3
    high school graduate34.432.931.733.1
    some college17.415.415.515.4
    college graduate15.514.50.1416.814.30.61
Marital status
    married54.754.654.054.9
    not married15.813.013.213.1
    divorced/separated29.532.40.0832.832.00.94
Living
    not alone78.675.878.876.6
    alone16.514.112.714.3
    other4.910.1<0.0018.59.10.58
Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis55.058.50.2057.958.10.71
Suspected native kidney disease
    glomerulonephritis9.15.76.05.8
    diabetes42.144.545.144.1
    hypertension25.727.227.127.3
    other22.222.60.0221.822.90.95
Comorbid conditions
    coronary artery disease35.442.8<0.00144.442.50.45
    congestive heart failure35.042.5<0.00144.142.40.48
    chronic obstructive lung disease7.39.00.119.09.01.00
    cerebrovascular disease8.613.5<0.00113.013.30.88
    history of cardiac arrest1.91.40.351.81.90.85
    hypertension70.070.50.7970.170.60.83
    diabetes47.851.80.0451.451.50.96
    HIV1.31.50.611.11.50.51
    malignancy8.18.80.537.68.80.41
    peripheral artery vascular disease16.520.30.0119.320.00.71
Systolic BP (n = 3531)147 (±21)145 (±22)0.02145 (±21)145 (±22)0.62
Diastolic BP (n = 3530)80 (±12)78 (±12)<0.00178 (±12)78 (±12)0.53
Laboratory measurements
    phosphate (n = 3442)5.6 (±1.8)5.3 (±1.7)<0.0015.3 (±1.7)5.3 (±1.7)0.90
    calcium (n = 3450)8.6 (±1.1)8.7 (±0.9)0.218.7 (±0.9)8.7 (±1.0)0.54
    parathyroid hormone (n = 2838)316.4 (±347)307 (±398)0.61302 (±322)310 (±400)0.71
    parathyroid hormone (n = 2838)25%: 10225%: 8625%: 9025%: 89
        (percentiles)50%: 21850%: 18450%: 19250%: 189
75%: 41775%: 39375%: 40875%: 395
    triglycerides (n = 2798)199 (±131)201 (±122)0.70205 (±150)201 (±122)0.60
Other medication use
    statins10.810.00.5012.810.10.10
    ACE/ARBs26.924.70.2225.825.00.73
    beta blockers20.518.30.1617.118.50.47
Propensity score0.75 (±0.08)0.75 (±0.08)0.95
  • All data are presented in column percent or in mean (± standard deviation) unless indicated otherwise.