Table 3.

Relationships of eGFR with annualized healthcare charges by multivariate linear regression in the full study sample (n = 1913)a

VariablesParameter Estimate ($ per year [SEM])bPParameter Estimate ($ per year [SEM])cP
Total Charges
    Intercept−5886 (8537)0.493197 (8266)0.70
    Age (per year)579 (174)0.0009301 (170)0.08
    Male gender−107 (4134)0.98−2271 (3988)0.57
    eGFR
        >90 ml/min levelreferencereference
        61 to 90 ml/min level1866 (5656)0.743556 (5456)0.51
        31 to 60 ml/min level7590 (6087)0.217738 (5869)0.19
        Per ml/min ≤305435 (449)<0.00015316 (433)<0.0001
    Diabetes mellitus27,847 (9292)0.0028
    Cardiovascular disease188,220 (15847)<0.0001
    Diabetes–cardiovascular disease interaction−185,935 (29767)<0.0001
Total Medical Charges
    Intercept−6228 (8551)0.472791 (8281)0.74
    Age (per year)547 (174)0.0017273 (170)0.11
    Male gender−865 (4162)0.84−2981 (4015)0.46
    eGFR
        >90 ml/min levelreferencereference
        61 to 90 ml/min level2067 (5676)0.723702 (5476)0.50
        31 to 60 ml/min level6292 (6096)0.306346 (5878)0.28
        Per ml/min ≤305332 (448)<0.00015215 (433)<0.0001
    Diabetes mellitus25,104 (9265)0.007
    Cardiovascular disease186,664 (15797)<0.0001
    Diabetes–cardiovascular disease interaction−184,495 (29667)<0.0001
Inpatient Charges
    Intercept−3465 (27799)0.9017,240 (26967)0.52
    Age (per year)1437 (520)0.006998 (517)0.05
    Male gender−4782 (14202)0.74−10,690 (13628)0.43
    eGFR
        >90 ml/min levelreferencereference
        61 to 90 ml/min level1262 (20653)0.95680 (19776)0.97
        31 to 60 ml/min level−5328 (20169)0.79−11,895 (19331)0.54
        Per ml/min <30783 (1164)0.50563 (1114)0.61
    Diabetes mellitus−18,965 (24284)0.44
    Cardiovascular disease176,913 (30285)<0.0001
    Diabetes–cardiovascular disease interaction−193,981 (53821)0.0004
Outpatient Pharmacy Charges
    Intercept542 (712)0.45674 (714)0.35
    Age (per year)41 (15)0.004535 (15)0.02
    Male gender581 (343)0.09566 (343)0.10
    eGFR
        >90 ml/min levelreferencereference
        61 to 90 ml/min level18 (472)0.9737 (471)0.94
        31 to 60 ml/min level1491 (502)0.0031514 (501)0.003
        Per ml/min ≤30119 (37)0.001118 (36)0.001
    Diabetes mellitus2484 (789)0.002
    Cardiovascular disease1066 (1341)0.43
    Diabetes–cardiovascular disease interaction−1514 (2464)0.54
  • a Charges were adjusted to the $2008 medical component of the Consumer Price Index.

  • b Regression model among the full sample, excluding parameters for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  • c Regression model among the full sample, including parameters for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.