Table 3.

Urine biochemistry

ParameterControl Subjects (n = 16)Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (n = 9)P
Volume (L/d)2.7 ± 0.42.5 ± 0.60.26
pH5.90 ± 0.425.45 ± 0.27<0.01
Creatinine (mg/d)1503 ± 4101540 ± 5500.81
Sodium (mEq/d)97 ± 3875 ± 300.03
Potassium (mEq/d)36 ± 1232 ± 100.20
Calcium (mg/d)157 ± 60160 ± 870.92
Magnesium (mg/d)95 ± 2071 ± 23<0.01
Sulfate (mEq/d)38 ± 737 ± 70.67
Urea nitrogen (g/d)8.2 ± 1.68.1 ± 1.80.80
Phosphorus (mg/d)518 ± 159520 ± 1890.98
Oxalate (mg/d)23 ± 425 ± 50.05
Chloride (mEq/d)93 ± 2978 ± 180.04
UA (mg/d)518 ± 136535 ± 1470.70
Citrate (mg/d)762 ± 236499 ± 316<0.01
Citrate (mEq/d)11 ± 36 ± 4<0.01
Ammonium (mEq/d)32 ± 1039 ± 5<0.01
TA (mEq/d)20 ± 825 ± 6<0.01
Bicarbonate (mEq/d)4 ± 41 ± 2<0.01
NAE (mEq/d)38 ± 1857 ± 12<0.01
NH4+/NAE0.94 ± 0.360.70 ± 0.12<0.01
NAE/sulfate0.99 ± 0.341.57 ± 0.38<0.01
UUA (mEq/d)1 ± 52 ± 70.43
NGIA (mEq/d)26 ± 1812 ± 220.03
  • Data are means ± SD and represent the mean of two 24-hour urine collections for each participant. NGIA, net GI alkali absorption.