Table 2.

Effect of a 12-week administration of amlodipine, valsartan, or their combination on type 2 diabetic hypertensive patients with proteinuria

GroupAmlodipine (n = 35)Valsartan (n = 37)Amlodipine + Valsartan (n = 36)
BeforeAfterBeforeAfterBeforeAfter
Age, years47 ± 547 ± 949 ± 6
Gender, male/female16/1917/2018/18
BMI, kg/m226.2 ± 2.126.5 ± 1.926.4 ± 2.2
Estimated GFR, ml/min/1.73 m2115 ± 8.6105 ± 12c112 ± 8.4104 ± 9.5c112 ± 9.6105 ± 11b
24-hour proteinuria, mg/d1560 (600 to 2800)1200 (200 to 2130)a1560 (780 to 2700)670 (220 to 2000)c1590 (600 to 2800)745 (110 to 2130)c
Serum albumin, g/dl3.8 ± 0.34 ± 0.3a4 ± 0.33.9 ± 0.33.9 ± 0.44 ± 0.4
Total cholesterol, mg/dl180 ± 23157 ± 31b179 ± 36151 ± 34b182 ± 33164 ± 32a
TG, mg/dl135 ± 13121 ± 23b135 ± 2599 ± 31c134 ± 22106 ± 32c
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl120 ± 2797 ± 28b118 ± 24113 ± 25121 ± 22106 ± 25b
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl37 ± 641 ± 5b39 ± 742 ± 7a37 ± 642 ± 4.6c
Plasma insulin, mIU/ml5.2 (3.8 to 7.3) 4.2 (2.1 to 5.8)b 5.2 (3.6 to 8)4.4 (1.3 to 7)c 5.2 (3.8 to 8.7)3.7 (1.3 to 5.6)c
Plasma glucose, mg/dl162 (115 to 214)153 (115 to 213)169 (107 to 219)149 (114 to 214)c164 (129 to 211)157 (115 to 199)a
HOMA-IR2.1 ± 0.51.6 ± 0.4c2.3 ± 0.61.6 ± 0.6c2.2 ± 0.61.4 ± 0.5c
Systolic BP, mmHg150 (140 to 165)130 (110 to 137)c148 (133 to 160)125 (100 to 141)c152 (140 to 167)120 (110 to 140)c
Diastolic BP, mmHg90 (80 to 98)80 (70 to 91)c92 (82 to 100)80 (70 to 90)c91 (88 to 100)80 (70 to 92)c
hsCRP, mg/L11.8 ± 4.58.1 ± 3.2c13.2 ± 4.67.8 ± 3.9c13.7 ± 48 ± 3.4c
PTX3, ng/ml6.5 (1.8 to 33)2.5 (1.6 to 16)c8.5 (1.8 to 33)3.9 (1 to 11)c8.1 (2.2 to 33)2.2 (1.4 to 7.9)c
sTWEAK, pg/ml418 ± 71418 ± 77407 ± 77452 ± 92a409 ± 84524 ± 82d
FMD, %6.7 (5.5 to 8.3)7.5 (5 to 8.7)c6.3 (5.5 to 8)7.8 (6 to 9.3)c6.4 (5.5 to 7.3) 8 (6.9 to 9.3)c
NMD, % 13 (12.1 to 13.7) 13 (12 to 13.8) 13 (11.8 to 13.8)13 (11.6 to 13.8) 13 (12 to 13.8)13 (12 to 13.8)
  • Data are presented as mean ± SD and median (range). HOMA, homeostasis model assessment.

  • a Paired t test, P < 0.05.

  • b Paired t test, P < 0.01.

  • c Paired t test, P < 0.001.